DAL overview

The Data-Availability Layer (DAL) enables users to publish blobs of data outside of the Tezos Layer 1 (L1) blocks. A blob (for “binary large object”) is a piece of data in binary form. While the primary use case for these blobs is to store Layer 2 (L2) operations for Tezos smart rollups, it is important to note that the DAL is more generic and could be used for other use cases in the future.

In practice, the DAL employs an additional P2P protocol to publish blobs, enabling a better bandwidth sharing between the peers (further elaborated in the P2P section below). The DAL aims to support a bandwidth of 10 MiB/s, a stark contrast to the current situation on L1, which has an approximate bandwidth of 32 KiB/s. This highlights the significant boost in bandwidth provided by the DAL.

Thanks to the DAL, the data bandwidth constraints imposed by the L1 block size are put back by several orders of magnitudes. This translates into reduced fees for users when posting L2 operations without compromising the fundamental principle of decentralization.

The amount of data that can be transmitted over the DAL network is, however, still controlled by the economic protocol. The economic protocol also plays a crucial role in determining the availability of those data through the participation of bakers.

Similarly to the Tezos L1, the DAL is permissionless, enabling any user to effectively contribute data to it, and allowing any smart rollup kernel or smart rollup operator to access this data.

DAL overview

The figure illustrates the standard process for interacting with the DAL as follows:

The diagram depicts a scenario where a user intends to upload data for a dedicated rollup.

Anyone engaging with the DAL must utilize a tool known as the DAL node (named octez-dal-node). When a user decides to provide a new blob to the DAL (depicted as step 1 in the diagram), the user transmits the data to the DAL node to calculate a commitment to the data. This commitment is then communicated to L1 via a dedicated operation (indicated as step 2). Following L1’s approval of this operation (step 3), the DAL expands this data for redundancy, partitions the expanded data into segments called shards, and disseminates the shards across the DAL network (shown in step 4). Shards are assigned to bakers proportionally to their stake by the economic protocol. Hence, the bakers, also connected to the DAL network, retrieve these assigned shards (step 5). The bakers must download and verify these shards within a specific timeframe, precisely defined by the economic protocol as the attestation lag period. At the end of the attestation lag period, bakers declare using an optional field of the consensus attestation operation, whether they were able to download the shards effectively (illustrated in step 6). The economic protocol collates these attestations and, if a sufficient number of bakers have successfully obtained the shards, the data is declared as available (step 7). Only when the data is labeled as available can the rollup utilize it (represented as step 8).

The rationale for having the attestation lag parameter is to give bakers sufficient time to download their assigned shards and to guarantee that the latency stays within acceptable limits (around one minute).

DAL slots

There is a limited number of blobs, called DAL slots (or slots for short), that can be published at a L1 level. A slot is identified by the L1 level at which it is published, an index, and its commitment. Depending on the context, a “slot” may refer to the data blob or to the placeholder (the slot index) of that blob. Each slot is treated independently of other slots. Presently, all slots are of the same size, though this may change with future updates. To publish a slot, it is first expanded to create redundancy through erasure coding, increasing its size by a factor known as the redundancy factor. This expanded slot is then divided into a set of smaller data pieces of equal size, called shards. Finally, shards are distributed across the DAL P2P network.

The advantage of using erasure coding is that one only needs a subset of the shards, specifically, “number of shards / redundancy factor” to recover the full original slot data. A key feature for the shards is that each shard can be verified to ensure it corresponds to a particular commitment, which safeguards against spam in the DAL P2P network.

For each slot index, multiple commitments can be included in a block, but only one will be acknowledged, the first one appearing in the block ordering. Because bakers typically prioritize operations that offer higher fees, the commitment with the higher fee is usually chosen for inclusion, although this outcome is not guaranteed if a baker uses a different selection criterion.

For smart rollups, it is necessary to divide the slot into smaller segments called pages (see Populating the reveal channel). The economic protocol specifies the size of each page as a constant, with 4KiB being a practical size. While it might seem feasible to choose shards fitting this page limit and directly feed shards to the rollup, accessing the original data from shards involves complex cryptographic computations. We prefer to avoid performing such computations within the smart rollups. Therefore, even though the DAL network uses shards internally, the DAL node can serve individual pages as requested by the smart-rollup node. These pages can then be imported individually by the smart rollup node to the kernel on demand. To reconstruct the entire slot, one simply needs to arrange these pages in the correct sequence. For developers working with smart-rollup kernels, the technicalities of reconstructing the entire slot out of pages should ideally be handled by the SDK they use, simplifying the process even more.

DAL slot

When the slot producer (user publishing a slot) posts the commitment onto the L1, it also posts a proof that the slot does not exceed the slot size. This prevents malicious users from producing and posting data larger than the expected size.

The DAL’s P2P protocol

The peer-to-peer (P2P) protocol for the DAL is made out of two components:

  • A gossipsub algorithm, instantiated as detailed below.

  • A transport layer for handling connections with peers. We reuse for that the P2P protocol used by the Octez node (see The DAL’s P2P protocol).

The gossip algorithm used for the DAL is an in-house version of the gossipsub v1.1 P2P protocol defined by the lib-p2p project. A detailed overview of this protocol is available here and an informal English specification can be found here. This gossip algorithm allows to partition the network into virtual subnetworks, each identified by a topic. The topic also determines the valid data that can be exchanged over the corresponding virtual subnetwork, as any exchanged message has exactly one associated topic. Each peer subscribes to topics of interest to him. This protocol enhances the network’s scalability compared to traditional gossip algorithms.

For each message, there is a message id that uniquely identifies this message. When a message is pushed, it comes with its message id. When the message is pulled, it is done via the message id. For every topic a node subscribes to, it maintains a virtual subnetwork, or mesh, of peers also subscribed to that topic. When a node has a new message to share (originating from the application layer) or needs to relay a received message, it does so to all peers in the corresponding topic’s mesh. Moreover, the node broadcasts the ids of the last received messages to a random selection of peers outside the mesh. Peers receiving these teasers can request the full message if they are interested in it. For the DAL instantiation of gossipsub, a message is defined as a 3-tuple: a shard, the shard’s index, and the shard’s proof proving that the shard corresponds to the commitment given by the message id. The associated message id consists of the shard index and the associated slot index, (published) level, slot commitment, and attestor’s public key hash.

A topic is defined as a pair (slot_index, public_key_hash). The first component identifies the slot associated to any shard published under this topic, while the second component identifies the baker assigned to this shard. Such a set of topics ensures that the bandwidth of bakers and slot producers is bounded (for valid messages) over a cycle.

A slot producer should subscribe to all relevant topics associated with their slot index. This includes every topic where a baker is assigned at least one shard for that slot index. On the other hand, a baker should subscribe to all topics that feature their public key address.

Gossipsub also defines a notion of score which is used to only connect to peers with a good score.

Regarding peer discovery, the current implementation of the DAL relies on gossipsub v1.1 peer exchanges. In particular, DAL nodes can be configured in bootstrap mode to facilitate peer discovery.


The current topic structure in the DAL for Tezos may be revised in a future update. Presently, topics include the bakers’ address (public key hash), which leads to a potentially unbounded number of topics over time. Another approach under consideration involves using a (slot_index, shard_index) pair, offering a more scalable solution in the long run, when the number of attesters surpasses the number of slots.


Attention must be paid to the security implications for bakers in the DAL network. Since a baker’s bandwidth is proportional to their stake, it can become relatively straightforward to identify the IP address of their DAL node, particularly for those with substantial stakes. To mitigate this risk, bakers are advised to operate their DAL node using an IP address different from their L1 node. This separation helps in preventing the unintentional exposure of the L1 node’s IP address.

Plans are underway to address these concerns. One proposed solution is to enable bakers to divide their bandwidth across multiple DAL nodes, enhancing both security and operational flexibility.