# Economic protocol sandboxing¶

In the currently active protocol, as in any sound future protocols, updates are approved by voting. That way, the responsibility of switching to a new protocol code is the responsibility of voters, and one could argue that it is up to them to check that the code does not call, for instance, unsafe array access functions.

Yet, we decided to introduce a minimum level of machine checks, by compiling with a specific compiler that checks that no known-unsafe function is used. This static form of sandboxing is performed by the OCaml typechecker: we simply compile protocols in a restricted set of modules with restricted interfaces that hide any unsafe, non wanted feature.

Another goal of that specific environment is maintaining a stable OCaml API for protocol development. Imagine that at some point, the OCaml standard library changes (a function is added or removed, a type is changed), then we will be able to upgrade to the new OCaml while still remaining compatible with past protocols, by providing an adapter layer.

Here is a quick description of each file in this environment:

• Files array.mli, buffer.mli, bytes.mli, format.mli, int32.mli, int64.mli, list.mli, map.mli, pervasives.mli, set.mli and string.mli are stripped down interfaces to the OCaml standard library modules. The removed elements are: effects on toplevel references or channels, unsafe functions, functions that are known sources of bugs, and anything deprecated.

• As we removed polymorphic comparison operators, compare.mli implements monomorphic operators for standard OCaml and Tezos types. An example use is Compare.Int.(3 = 4) instead of plain OCaml (3 = 4).

• Files lwt* is the stripped down interface to Lwt, of which we removed any non deterministic functions, since we only use Lwt for asynchronous access to the storage.

• Files data_encoding.mli, error_monad.mli, mBytes.mli, hash.mli, base58.mli, blake2B.mli, ed25519.mli, hex_encode.mli, json.mli, time.mli, z.mli, micheline.mli and files RPC_* are stripped down versions of the Tezos standard library.

• Files tezos_data.mli, context.mli, fitness.mli and updater.mli are interfaces to the shell’s data definitions and storage accessors that are accessible to the protocol.