Liquidity Baking

Liquidity baking incentivizes large amounts of decentralized liquidity provision between tez and tzBTC by minting a small amount of tez every block and depositing it inside of a constant product market making smart-contract. It includes an escape hatch mechanism as a contingency.


During protocol stitching a constant product market making (CPMM) Michelson contract is deployed on the chain with address KT1TxqZ8QtKvLu3V3JH7Gx58n7Co8pgtpQU5 as well as an associated liquidity token contract with address KT1AafHA1C1vk959wvHWBispY9Y2f3fxBUUo.

The CPMM maintains a balance of a tez and b tzBTC, where tzBTC is the FA1.2 token found at address KT1PWx2mnDueood7fEmfbBDKx1D9BAnnXitn. The smart contract accepts deposits of da tez and returns db tzBTC (or vice versa) where the invariant (a + da * (1 - f - n)) * (b - db) = a b is preserved, and f and n are a fee and burn, set at 0.1% each. Calculations are done with precision of 1000, rounding down on division.

To implement this contract, we use a fork of the open source code base used by version two of the “Dexter” project. The implementation of this contract has been formally verified against its functional specification. The contract code is modified in the following way:

  1. The fee is set to 0.1% only (the fee in Dexter v2 is set to 0.3%). Rationale: given the subsidy it is not necessary to charge a large fee and better to improve liquidity.

  2. An additional 0.1% of every trade is burned by being transferred to the null implicit account. Rationale: this mechanism offsets inflation from the subsidy. The inflation is exactly balanced at a daily trade volume of 7.2 million tez.

  3. The ability to set a delegate has been removed. Rationale: the subsidy means there is no need for a baker for that contract and having one would create an imbalance.

  4. The ability to set a manager has been removed. Rationale: the only privilege of the Dexter manager is to set Dexter’s delegate so this role is now unnecessary.


At every block in the chain, a small amount of tez is minted and credited to the CPMM contract, and the CPMM’s %default entrypoint is called to update the xtz_pool balance in its storage. The amount that is minted and sent to the CPMM contract is 1/16th of the rewards for a block of priority 0 with all endorsements; currently these rewards are 40 tez per block so the amount that is sent to the CPMM contract is 2.5 tez per block.

So the credits to the CPMM contract can be accounted for by indexers, they are included in block metadata as a balance update with a new constructor for update_origin, Subsidy.

As a safety precaution, the subsidy expires automatically at a given level called the liquidity baking sunset level. The sunset level can be renewed periodically by protocol amendment.

Escape hatch

In addition to the sunset mechanism, an escape hatch is included. At every block, the baker producing the block can choose to include a flag that requests ending the subsidy. The context maintains an exponential moving average of that flag calculated as such with integer arithmetic:

e[0] = 0 e[n+1] = (1999 * e[n] // 2000) + (1000 if flag[n] else 0)

If at any block e[n] >= 1000000 then it means that an exponential moving average with a window size on the order of two thousand blocks has had roughly a majority of blocks demanding the end of the subsidy. If that is the case, the subsidy is permanently halted (though it can be reactivated by a protocol upgrade).

For indicative purposes, if a fraction f of blocks start signalling the flag, the threshold is reached after roughly 2*(log(1-1/(2f)) / log(0.999)) blocks, about 1387 blocks if everyone signals, 1964 blocks if 80% do, 3590 blocks if 60% do, etc. Recall for comparison that assuming two blocks per minute there are 2880 blocks per day.