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Adaptive Issuance and Staking

This document describes Adaptive Issuance and Staking, two new features (referred hereafter as the Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal) which together constitute a major evolution of Tezos’ Proof-of-Stake mechanism.


For operational details about the new staking mechanism and its configuration, see a new staking mechanism tutorial.

Adaptive Issuance

Adaptive Issuance is a novel mechanism regulating tez issuance in Tezos.

The Tezos economic protocol issues new tez via:

Participation rewards and the LB subsidy are regularly issued by the protocol, whereas the value and recipients of invoices are defined discretionarily by the developers of a protocol proposal. The values for participation rewards and the LB subsidy, if any, are currently defined by the Tezos protocol using fixed constants.

The Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal introduces the possibility to activate Adaptive Issuance: a mechanism where the amount of participation rewards depends on the global staked funds ratio – that is, the ratio of staked tez to the total supply. This lets issuance roughly match the actual security budget the chain requires, the amount needed to encourage participants to stake and produce blocks, but no more.

At the end of each blockchain cycle, the regular issuance is adjusted, to nudge the staked funds ratio towards a protocol-defined target (set at 50% in the Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal). Participation rewards are recomputed to match that budget. When the staked funds ratio decreases and diverges from the target, emission rates increase, incentivizing participants to stake funds to re-approach the target. Conversely, incentives decrease as the ratio increases beyond the target.

Adaptive issuance rate

The adaptive issuance rate determines, at the end of cycle \(\IL{c}\), the issuance for cycle \(\IL{c + 3}\). The adaptive issuance rate is the sum of a static rate and a dynamic rate. The final result is clipped to ensure nominal emissions remain within the minimal and the maximum ratios.

Minimum and maximum ratios

For the upcoming Paris protocol proposal, the minimum and maximum issuance rates will evolve smoothly over a predefined period of time, with the window between the maximum and minimum values progressively widening.

The following figure describes the progressive maximum and minimum values of Adaptive Issuance.


Figure 1. A gradual widening of the range ensures a smooth transition to Adaptive Issuance.

The schedule consists of three periods:

  • an initial period, set to 1 month, where the minimum and maximum issuance rates are close to the current issuance rate and stay constant,

  • a transition period, set to 5 months, where they widen lineary, with the minimum going lower and the maximum higher, and

  • a final period where the minimum and maximum have reached their minimum and maximum values.

Formally, we define the main function for computing progressive ratios as follows.

def compute_extremum(cycle, initial_value, final_value):
  trans = transition_period + 1
  initial_limit = ai_activation_cycle + initial_period
  trans_limit = initial_limit + trans
  if cycle <= initial_limit:
      return initial_value
  elif cycle >= trans_limit:
      return final_value
      t = cycle - initial_limit
      res = (t * (final_value - initial_value) / trans) + initial_value
      return res


  • ai_activation_cycle is the first cycle with Adaptive Issuance active.

  • initial_period is a predefined period of time, set to 1 month in Paris.

  • transition_period is a predefined period of time, set to 5 months in Paris.

The issuance minimum ratio for Adaptive Issuance curve is then defined as follows.

def minimum_ratio(cycle):
  return compute_extremum(cycle, issuance_ratio_initial_min, issuance_ratio_global_min)


  • issuance_ratio_initial_min (4.5%) is the initial minimum value. At the time of Adaptive Issuance‘s activation, the issuance rate is kept above this bound for the initial period.

  • issuance_ratio_global_min (0.25%) is the final value for the lower bound, reached at the end of the transition period.

The issuance maximum ratio for Adaptive Issuance curve is then defined as follows.

def maximum_ratio(cycle):
  return compute_extremum(cycle, issuance_ratio_initial_max, issuance_ratio_global_max)


  • issuance_ratio_initial_max (5.5%) controls the initial maximum value. At the time of Adaptive Issuance‘s activation, the issuance rate is kept below this bound for the initial period.

  • issuance_ratio_global_max (10%) is the final value for the upper bound, reached at the end of the transition period.

Staked ratio

The staked ratio, that is the ratio of staked tez to the total supply, is computed at the end of a given cycle and defined as follows.

def staked_ratio(cycle):
  return total_frozen_stake(cycle + 1 + consensus_rights_delay) / total_supply(cycle)


  • consensus_rights_delay (2) is the delay in cycles for a delegate to receive rights.

  • total_supply(cycle) returns the total supply of tez at the end of the given cycle.

  • total_frozen_stake(cycle) returns the total frozen stake at the given cycle.

Static rate

The static rate is a static mechanism, which approximates a Dutch auction to compute a nominal issuance rate as a function of the staked funds ratio for a given cycle. Its value decreases as the staked funds ratio increases, and vice versa. The static rate is defined as follows.

def static_rate(cycle):
  staked_ratio_value = staked_ratio(cycle)
  static_rate_value = 1 / 1600 * (1 / (staked_ratio_value ** 2))
  return clip(static_rate_value, minimum_ratio(cycle + 1), maximum_ratio(cycle + 1))

Where the function clip is defined as follows.

def clip(value, min_value, max_value):
  return max(min_value, min(value, max_value))

The choice of a scaling factor ensures that the curve takes reasonable values for plausible staking ratios. Moreover, assuming Adaptive Issuance is activated with a dynamic ratio of 0, and at current staked funds ratio (that is, ~7.5% of the total supply), this factor allows for a smooth transition from current issuance rate (~4.6%).

Dynamic rate

The dynamic reward rate adjusts itself over time based on the distance between the staked funds ratio and the 50% (±2%) target ratio, increasing when < 48% and decreasing when > 52%, provided the total issuance rate is not hitting its lower or upper limit. The dynamic rate is defined as follows.

def dyn(cycle):
  if cycle <= ai_activation_cycle:
    return 0
  previous_bonus = dyn(cycle - 1)
  staked_ratio_value = staked_ratio(cycle)
  seconds_per_cycle = blocks_per_cycle * minimal_block_delay
  ratio_min = minimum_ratio(cycle + 1)
  ratio_max = maximum_ratio(cycle + 1)
  static_rate_value = static_rate(cycle)
  static_rate_dist_to_max = ratio_max - static_rate_clipped
  udist = abs(staked_ratio_value - ratio_target) - ratio_radius
  dist = -udist if staked_ratio_value >= ratio_target else udist
  days_per_cycle = seconds_per_cycle / 86400
  new_bonus = max(previous_bonus + dist * growth_rate * days_per_cycle, 0)
  max_new_bonus = min(static_rate_dist_to_max, max_bonus)
  res = min(new_bonus, max_new_bonus)
  assert 0 <= res <= max_bonus
  return res


  • ratio_target (0.5), ratio_radius (0.02) denote, respectively, the target staked funds ratio and the radius of the interval centered on the target ratio.

  • blocks_per_cycle denotes the number of blocks in a Tezos cycle.

  • minimal_block_delay denotes the minimal duration of a block in seconds.

  • days_per_cycle denotes the minimal duration in days of a Tezos cycle, assuming all blocks in the cycle are produced at the minimal allowed time – that is, every 10 seconds in Paris.

  • dist denotes the distance between the staked funds ratio and the interval [ratio_target - ratio_radius; ratio_target + ratio_radius].

  • growth_rate controls the speed at which the dynamic rate adjusts. The value is set so that a one percentage point deviation of the staked funds ratio changes the dynamic rate by 0.01 percentage points per day.

  • max_bonus is set to 50_000_000 tez in the protocol.

  • 86400 is the number of seconds in a day.

In a nutshell, dyn(c) increases and decreases by an amount proportional to the distance between the target rate and the interval [ratio_target - ratio_radius; ratio_target + ratio_radius], while ensuring that the adaptive issuance rate is kept within the minimum and maximum bounds.

Issuance rate

Finally, as mentioned before, the nominal adaptive issuance rate 1 for a cycle c + consensus_rights_delay + 1 is defined as the sum of the static rate and the dynamic rate computed for the cycle c, clipped to stay within the minimum and maximum ratios computed for the cycle c + 1.

def issuance_rate(cycle):
  adjusted_cycle = cycle - consensus_rights_delay
  static_rate_ratio = static_rate(adjusted_cycle - 1)
  bonus = reward_bonus(adjusted_cycle - 1)
  ratio_min = minimum_ratio(adjusted_cycle)
  ratio_max = maximum_ratio(adjusted_cycle)
  total_rate = static_rate_ratio + bonus
  return clip(total_rate, ratio_min, ratio_max)

Adaptive rewards

Before adaptive issuance activation, participation rewards are fixed values defined by protocol constants. With the proposed mechanism, the adaptive issuance rate provides instead a budget for the whole cycle, which gets allocated equally to each block of the cycle and distributed between the various rewards, in proportion to their relative weights.

Reward weights

The Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal defines the weights for participation rewards as:

  • Attestation (formerly, endorsing) rewards: 10,240.

  • Fixed baking reward: 5,120.

  • Bonus baking reward: 5,120.

  • Nonce revelation tip: 1.

  • VDF tip: 1.

The total sum sum_rewards_weight of all weights is 20482.

sum_rewards_weight = (
  attestation_rewards +
  fixed_baking_rewards +
  bonus_baking_rewards +
  nonce_revelation_tip +

The coefficient to apply for reward computation is defined as follows.

def reward_coeff(cycle):
  if cycle < ai_activation_cycle:
    return 1
  rate = issuance_rate(cycle)
  total_supply = total_supply(cycle - consensus_rights_delay - 1)
  return (rate / 525600) * total_supply / base_total_issued_per_minute


  • base_total_issued_per_minute (80007812) is the expected amount of mutez issued per minute.

  • 525600 is the number of minutes per year.

The issuance per block is then distributed amongst the different rewards in proportion to their weight.

def tez_from_weights(weight):
  num = weight * minimal_block_delay
  den = sum_rewards_weight * 60
  return base_total_issued_per_minute * num / den

def reward_from_constants(cycle, weight):
  return tez_from_weights(weight) * reward_coeff(cycle)

Consensus rewards. Since the adoption of Tenderbake, Tezos protocols before the Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal have rewarded delegates for their participation in consensus with the following rewards per block:

  • A fixed baking reward, given to the delegate which produced the payload of the block (i.e. choosing transactions, and other non-consensus operations).

  • A variable, baking bonus reward given to the delegate which produced the block included in the chain. This bonus is given for including attestations, if their combined attesting power exceeds the minimal threshold (two thirds of total slots).

  • A collective attestation reward, for attesting block proposals, distributed at the end of the cycle to the delegates selected in the consensus committees for that cycle, proportionnaly to their expected participation.

We refer to the consensus page for further insight on the pre-requisites and distribution of these rewards. Here, we derive the new functions which compute their values per block.

def baking_reward_fixed_portion(cycle):
  return reward_from_constants(cycle, fixed_baking_rewards)

def baking_reward_bonus_per_slot(cycle):
  bonus_committee_size = consensus_committee_size - consensus_threshold
  return reward_from_constants(cycle, bonus_baking_rewards) / bonus_committee_size

def attestation_reward_per_slot(cycle):
  return reward_from_constants(cycle, attestation_rewards) / consensus_committee_size


  • consensus_committee_size (7000) is the number of attestation slots available in a block.

  • consensus_threshold (4667) is the required number of attestations for a baker to propose a block.

Nonce and VDF revelation tips. The rewards allocated to delegates for contributing to random seed generation (that is, for revealing nonce seeds and posting VDF proofs) are not paid each block, but rather every 192 blocks.

def seed_nonce_revelation_tip(cycle):
  return reward_from_constants(cycle, nonce_revelation_tip * blocks_per_commitment)

def vdf_revelation_tip(cycle):
  return reward_from_constants(cycle, vdf_tip * blocks_per_commitment)


  • blocks_per_commitment (192) is the interval in blocks between each revelation, both VDF and nonce.

The Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal implements a new RPC endpoint, /issuance/expected_issuance, which reports the precomputed values of all participation rewards, for the provided block and the next consensus_rights_delay cycles.

New Staking mechanism

Staking is an evolution of the existing Tezos Liquid Proof-of-Stake mechanism. It introduces a new role for network participants, called staker, complementary to the existing delegate (also known as baker) and delegator roles. A staker must also be a delegator – that is, they must first choose a delegate.

When stakers stake funds towards a delegate’s staking balance, the associated baking and voting powers accrue to that delegate. Similarly to how delegated funds work, staked funds remain within the staker’s account at all times.

Staked and delegated funds have different weights in the computation of delegates’ baking and voting powers: staked funds (both external stakes by stakers and the delegate’s own) count twice as much as delegated funds.

Unlike delegated funds, staked funds are considered to contribute to the security deposit associated with their chosen delegate. Thus, they are subject to slashing if the delegate misbehaves by double-signing block proposals or consensus operations, and are subject to the same withdrawal delays – colloquially, they are “frozen”.

Stakers are slashed proportionally to their contribution to the delegate’s staking balance. To simplify slashing, double-baking penalties are now proportional to staked funds: instead of the previous fixed sum of 640 tez they are now set to 5% of the delegate’s stake. Moreover, denunciation rewards (both for double-baking and double-attestations) are reduced from one half to one seventh of the slashed funds. The chosen value prevents adversarial delegates from abusing the slashing mechanism for profit at the expense of their stakers.

Delegates configure their staking policy by setting staking parameters which regulate whether they accept stakers (the default being to reject them), and if so, up to which fraction of their total staking balance. They can also configure which proportion of the staking rewards from other stakers is set to accrue to their own staked balance instead. As participation rewards are automatically shared between delegates and their stakers, delegates can use this parameter to collect an edge from the rewards attributable to their stakers.

If and when the Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal activates, freezing and unfreezing of staked funds will be controlled directly by delegates and stakers, and will no longer be automatic. This entails that staked funds are frozen until manually unfrozen by stakers. This is a two step process which spans for at least 4 cycles (cf. Staked funds management).

A new user interface is provided for delegates and stakers to interact with the mechanism. It is based on four pseudo-operations: stake, unstake, finalize_unstake, and set_delegate_parameters. Pseudo-operations are self-transfers: a transfer operation where the destination matches the source – each involving a special entry-point of the same name introduced for user accounts. This approach was chosen to minimize the work required by wallets, custodians, exchanges, and other parties to support the functionality.

NB Until feature activation: only delegates can stake funds and the relative weight of staked and delegated funds remains unchanged. In the current implementation, only user accounts can become stakers. In other words, smart contracts cannot stake funds (they can of course still delegate them).

Staking policy configuration

Delegates can configure their staking policy by setting the following parameters:

  • edge_of_baking_over_staking: a ratio between 0 and 1, whose default value is 1. This parameter determines the fraction of the rewards that accrue to the delegate’s frozen deposit – the remainder is shared among its stakers.

  • limit_of_staking_over_baking: a non-negative number, denoting the maximum portion of external stake by stakers over the delegate’s own staked funds. It defaults to 0 – which entails that delegates do not accept external stakes by default. It is moreover capped by a global constant, set to 5 in the Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal, which ensures the baker controls a significant part of the stake.

Delegates can modify these staking parameters at all times, using the set_delegate_parameters pseudo-operation: that is, by transferring 0 tez to their own set_delegate_parameters entry-point. The chosen values for both parameters need to be supplied. The new parameters are then applied DELEGATE_PARAMETERS_ACTIVATION_DELAY (currently 5) cycles later.

octez-client transfer 0 from <delegate> to  <delegate> --entrypoint set_delegate_parameters --arg "Pair <limit as int value in millionth)> (Pair <edge as int value in billionth> Unit)"

or more conveniently:

octez-client set delegate parameters for  <delegate> --limit-of-staking-over-baking <value> --edge-of-baking-over-staking <value>

On overstaking and overdelegation. Note that if a delegate’s limit_of_staking_over_baking is exceeded (that is, the delegate is overstaked), the exceeding stake is automatically considered as delegation for the delegate’s baking and voting power calculation, but it does remain slashable. The new mechanism does not alter overdelegation (delegated funds beyond 9 times the delegate’s own stake) nor its consequence on voting and baking powers. That is, overdelegated funds are not counted towards a delegate baking power, but they do increase their voting power.

Staked funds management

Stakers (and delegates) can use the stake, unstake, and finalize_unstake pseudo-operations to control their stakes. Figure 2 illustrates their effect on a staker’s funds. Note that while these pseudo-operations change the state of the involved funds, they remain otherwise within the staker’s account at all times.


Figure 2: staked funds management using pseudo-operations.

To stake funds, a delegator uses the stake pseudo-operation, transferring the chosen amount of spendable tez to their own stake entry-point. The staked tez will then be frozen and contribute to their chosen delegate’s staking balance. Note that the stake pseudo-operation will fail if the sender account is not delegated.

octez-client transfer <amount> from <staker> to <staker> --entrypoint stake

or more conveniently:

octez-client stake <amount> for <staker>

To unstake funds, a staker first submits an unstake request with the unstake pseudo-operation. This is implemented by transferring the chosen amount in tez to their unstake entry-point:

octez-client transfer <amount> from <staker> to <staker> --entrypoint unstake

or more conveniently:

octez-client unstake <amount|"everything"> for <staker>

The requested amount will be unstaked but will remain frozen. After 4 cycles, unstaked frozen tokens are no longer considered at stake nor slashable. They are said then to be both unstaked and finalizable.

A staker can retrieve all unstaked and finalizable tokens at any time, making them spendable again. This is done using the finalize_unstake entrypoint -– that is, by transferring 0 tez to their finalize_unstake entry-point:

octez-client transfer 0 from <staker> to <staker> --entrypoint finalize_unstake

or more conveniently:

octez-client finalize unstake for <staker>

In some circumstances, unstake and finalize can be done implicitly: any call to stake or unstake will implicitly finalize all currently finalizable pending unstake requests. Also, as we will see next, change of delegate triggers an unstake operation.

Change of delegate

When a staker changes its delegate, the operation will trigger an implicit unstake request for the full frozen deposit of the staker.

As long as the unstake request is not finalized, the frozen tokens will continue to be delegated to the old delegate, however the spending balance of the account is accounted in the new delegate’s stake. It will not be possible to stake with the new delegate as long as there are unfinalizable unstake request for token staked with the old delegate.

Feature activation vs protocol activation

Should the Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal be accepted by the community, and once the protocol becomes active on Tezos Mainnet, most of the features described in this document will not be enabled by default, only latent possibilities in the protocol, waiting for a separate activation.

In particular, the following changes will require additional approval from delegates via separate feature activation vote mechanism:

  • Adaptive issuance – including notably the changes to the computation of consensus rewards.

  • Ability for delegators to become stakers – until feature activation delegates continue to be the only participants who can stake funds.

  • The changes in weight for staked and delegated funds towards the computation of baking and voting rights.

Other changes described earlier would be enabled from the Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal’s activation:

  • The new interface for stake manipulation based on pseudo-operations. Note that this entails the deprecation of the set/unset deposits limit interface and also the end of automatic deposit freezing. On protocol activation, each delegate’s stake is derived from the frozen deposits at the end of the last cycle of Nairobi.

  • The changes in slashing penalties (double-baking penalties are set to 5% of the staked funds) and denunciation rewards (they amount to one seventh of slashed funds).

  • Changes to protocol constants. Note that this entails calculating participation rewards using the weight-based formulas, but these are defined so that they match the previous values when Adaptive Issuance is not active.

NB In the implementation in the Adaptive-Issuance/Staking proposal, the issuance rate is computed 3 cycles in advance. Thus, in the first 3 cycles where is active, the protocol does not use the adaptive reward formula and keeps using the current reward values.


Note that if the nominal annual issuance rate is \(r\), the annualized rate is close to \(\IL{\exp{r} - 1}\) as it is compounded at every cycle.